Glossary of business-related terms – A to Z
|Ability to pay||The ability to pay rule determines what kind of loan a potential borrower should qualify for. This rule states that lenders must only lend money to borrowers demonstrating their ability and willingness to repay the loan in full.|
Lenders base this decision on the borrower’s income level, debt-to-income ratio, employment history, credit score, and other factors.
|Above-the-line||Above-the-line (ATL) is a term used in marketing and advertising. It describes media activities from which an advertiser directly pays for the cost of delivering their message to audiences.|
Above-the-line activities include television, radio, print, outdoor, and cinema advertising and product placement.
|Absolute advantage||Absolute advantage is an economic concept that describes a country’s ability to produce a certain good or service better than another country.|
It compares the productivity between different countries and assesses which one can produce a product with fewer resources and at a lower cost.
|Absorbed business||Absorbed Business is an innovative concept that aims to help small and medium-sized businesses succeed by providing them with the tools and resources they need to grow.|
Through its comprehensive suite of services, Absorbed Business helps entrepreneurs create business plans, access financial capital, hire qualified talent, access marketing, and branding solutions, and more.
|Ad-hoc meeting||Ad-hoc meetings are temporary gatherings of individuals to discuss a particular issue or topic. |
These meetings usually occur spontaneously without prior planning, allowing for more flexibility and openness than regular meetings.
Ad-hoc meetings can be conducted in person or remotely, depending on the needs of the participants.
|Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)||The ADA is unique among civil rights laws, as it protects those with disabilities from discrimination based on their disability status. |
This means employers are prohibited from discriminating against individuals with a physical or mental impairment that “substantially limits one or more major life activities,” such as walking, talking, seeing, hearing, eating, and caring for oneself.
The ADA also requires employers to make reasonable accommodations for individuals with disabilities and ensure that their access to services, programs, and facilities is not limited due to their disability status.
|Absorbed costs||Absorbed costs refer to expenses included in a product’s cost when calculating the total price. These costs are not separately listed on an invoice but are absorbed into the item’s overall cost.|
Examples of absorbed costs include labor, materials, overhead, and shipping.
|Abstract||The abstract summarizes a longer work (such as a dissertation or research paper). The abstract concisely report the research aims and outcomes so that readers can quickly become acquainted with the main points and conclusions.|
A good abstract will accurately reflect the content of the study, clearly describe its purpose and methods, provide actual results and findings, suggest further implications for research or action, and list keywords for indexing.
|Accessory goods||Accessory Goods allow consumers to express themselves through fashion and style. They can add a personal touch to an outfit or be the stand-out piece that makes a look truly unique.|
From jewelry and watches to hats and scarves, there’s an abundance of options for accessorizing.
|Accessibility||Accessibility is the practice of making products and services available to all users, including those with disabilities. |
It applies to a wide range of areas, including web content, applications, documents, physical spaces, and more.
By ensuring that everyone is included in the design process and can use the resulting product or service, organizations are able to create better outcomes for everyone involved.
|Activity-based work (ABW)||Activity-based work (ABW) is an innovative approach to the modern workplace that offers numerous benefits for employees and organizations alike. |
ABW focuses on optimizing the use of space, improving collaboration between teams, and providing employees with more control over their workspace.
It also encourages employees to be more creative, productive and efficient through its design principles such as activity-based design, flexible seating and the use of technology.
|Action||Action in business is often associated with strategic decision-making. It is the process of taking action to achieve a desired result using available resources and assets.|
Effective action requires a combination of skills such as problem-solving, critical thinking, communication, and team dynamics.
Moreover, when taking action in business, it is important to consider short-term and long-term objectives, prioritize tasks and identify potential risks.
|Active portfolio strategy||Active Portfolio Management is an investment strategy that actively monitors and rebalances a portfolio to maintain a desired asset allocation.|
This means that the investor monitors the performance of their investments and makes changes as needed to ensure that they remain on track with their goals.
|Adaptive firm||Adaptive Firms are companies that can respond quickly and effectively to changes in their external environment.|
They can sense, interpret, and act upon market signals; anticipate customer needs; adapt to technological advances; and develop innovative business strategies.
|Administrative expense||Administrative Expense is a broad term that refers to any expense incurred in running the day-to-day operations of a business.|
It includes accounting and legal fees, office space rent, employee salaries and benefits, utilities, insurance premiums, taxes, and other expenses such as advertising and promotional costs.
|Administrator||An administrator is responsible for the smooth functioning of an organization or a system. Administrators are expected to manage tasks such as planning, organizing, directing, controlling, and budgeting.|
They also oversee the operations of a business or organization and ensure that everything runs efficiently. An administrator is usually involved in decision-making, problem-solving and staff management functions.
|Advocacy groups||Advocacy groups are organized around specific issues and work to bring about social change in their chosen areas. |
They often lobby governments, promote public awareness campaigns, and support legal action in order to further their cause.
These organizations can be focused on local or national efforts, or may even reach an international level.
|Autonomy||Autonomy involves giving employees more freedom and power to make decisions without having to go through management for approval. |
Autonomy allows employees to be more creative, self-directed, and ultimately contribute more to the success of their organization.
|Adventure capitalist||Adventure Capitalist is a business simulation game for mobile and browser platforms. Players take on the role of an entrepreneur, building up their virtual investment portfolio from nothing but pocket change.|
As players progress, they can purchase businesses to generate more income, invest in real estate to increase the value of their properties, and upgrade investments for increased returns.
|Advertising||Advertising is one of the most important tools for businesses to reach their target customers and drive sales.|
Advertising provides a cost-effective way for businesses to increase brand awareness and promote their products or services.
It can be used in digital and traditional media, such as television, radio, newspapers, magazines, billboards, and the internet.
|Automatic data classification||Automatic data classification involves using software tools to categorize and identify data into predefined classes or categories. It is an important component of many organizational data management processes.|
It can help organizations improve their security posture, reduce compliance risk, better manage data storage costs, and optimize the searchability of their information assets.
|Bad debts||Bad debts are a significant issue for any business. They can occur when customers fail to pay money owed or when lenders make unwise lending decisions.|
This can reduce a company’s profits, increase costs, and cause financial hardship for the lender and the customer.
|Balance sheet||The Balance Sheet is one of the most important financial statements to assess a company’s overall financial position. It records the company’s assets, liabilities, and equity.|
Assets are resources owned or controlled by the company and consist of cash, accounts receivable, inventory, equipment, and other valuable items.
Liabilities are obligations owed to creditors, including accounts payable, accrued expenses, and long-term debt. Equity represents the ownership interests of the owners in the company.
The balance sheet is based on the accounting equation: Assets = Liabilities + Equity.
|Banking||Banking is the activity of managing and safeguarding money. Banks are financial institutions that provide a wide range of services, such as accepting deposits, offering loans, and providing investment products to their customers.|
The main role of banks is to act as intermediaries between borrowers and savers by bringing them together in the marketplace.
|Brand||A brand is a symbol, design, or expression that sets a product or service apart from its competitors. It is an important part of any company’s identity and can create customer recognition and loyalty.|
Building a successful brand requires careful planning, research, market analysis, ongoing trends, and customer feedback monitoring.
|Brand equity||Brand equity is an essential concept for businesses to understand. It refers to the value of a brand and its ability to increase customer loyalty and generate more sales.|
Brand equity can be built over time through consistent messaging, effective marketing campaigns, high-quality products and services, and positive customer experiences.
|Business||A business is an organization or enterprising entity engaged in commercial, industrial, or professional activities. It can also refer to an organization that provides goods and services to its customers in exchange for money.|
Businesses can range from small sole proprietorships with a single owner/operator to large multinational corporations with thousands of employees and complex organizational structures.
|Business administration||Business Administration is a field of study that focuses on developing and managing a business organization.|
It encompasses planning, organizing, leading, and controlling an organization’s operations.
The primary goal of Business Administration is to develop strategies that allow organizations to be successful in their operations and reach their goals.
|Business analyst||Business analysts are a crucial part of any company’s success. They monitor and analyze business processes, systems, and data to identify areas of improvement, recommend solutions, and track progress to ensure successful implementation.|
Business analysts must have strong analytical skills, problem-solving abilities, and a deep understanding of the industry in which they work.
|Business development||Business development is a combination of strategic analysis, marketing, and sales. It creates value for an organization by developing new markets, products, services, and customer relationships.|
Business development activities range from market research and product design to competitive positioning and customer loyalty programs.
|Business ethics||Business ethics refers to the ethical principles that govern business practices. Organizations need to uphold these principles to maintain ethical and moral standards.|
This can be reflected in their products, services, operations, and marketing strategies.
Business ethics include many considerations, such as environmental stewardship, truthfulness in advertising, employee rights, fair wages, work conditions, and other considerations.
|Business expenses||Business expenses refer to the costs incurred in running a business. They can include rent, office supplies, equipment, transportation, staff salaries and wages, marketing expenses, insurance premiums, etc.|
These expenses are necessary for the business to meet its goals and fulfill its mission. Businesses can either incur these expenses as part of their daily operations or invest in them as part of their long-term strategies.
|Business hierarchy||Business hierarchy is the structure of a business that defines the chain of command and authority among employees.|
It outlines who reports to whom, how decisions are made, what roles are responsible for which tasks, and how information flows throughout the organization.
Business hierarchy helps ensure that all areas of a company function efficiently by providing clear communication paths between different departments and allowing for a smooth flow of information.
|Business model||A business model is a framework that outlines how an organization creates, delivers, and captures value. It describes the products or services the business will offer and how it will generate revenues from those offerings.|
Additionally, a business model identifies the key resources required to operate the business, the cost structure associated with creating and delivering its products or services, and the sources of its revenues.
|Business plan||A business plan is a document that outlines a business’s goals, strategies, and tactics. It is a strategic tool entrepreneurs use to map out the desired success and growth. The plan lays out all the necessary components for starting the company, such as market analysis, product/service description, marketing strategy, financial projections, etc. It should also include contingencies if the business doesn’t reach its goals.|
|Business Profile||The Business Profile specializes in providing comprehensive services covering everything from business advice and strategy to marketing, financial analysis, project management, and more.|
The team comprises experienced professionals with expertise in various business areas, such as accounting, finance, retail operations, human resources, information technology, and strategic planning.
|Buy-in||Buy-in is a term used to describe the commitment, enthusiasm, and ownership individuals or teams have in their work.|
It is particularly important when implementing change initiatives, as buy-in helps ensure that everyone involved is willing to take ownership and be accountable for their part in achieving success.
|Capitalization||Capitalization in business writing can be a bit tricky. The general rule is always to capitalize proper nouns and titles, such as names of people, places, companies, organizations, and products.|
It’s also important to note that the first word in a sentence should always be capitalized.
|Chief operating officer||A Chief Operating Officer (COO) is a corporate executive responsible for overseeing the day-to-day operations of an organization.|
They work closely with the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) to ensure that all operational functions run smoothly and efficiently, from finance and accounting to human resources and marketing.
|Co-branding||Co-branding is a marketing strategy that combines two or more brands to create a new product or service.|
This strategy can be highly effective in helping companies reach new consumers and establish stronger brand loyalty with existing customers.
By utilizing the strengths of both brands, co-branding can help increase recognition and visibility and boost sales.
|Cold Call||Cold calling is an important skill for sales and business development professionals. It involves making unsolicited or “cold calls” to potential customers to make a sale or start a relationship. Cold calling can be intimidating to many people, but mastering the technique can open up new opportunities and help your business grow.|
|Collaborative workflow||Collaborative workflow is coordinating tasks and resources between teams or individuals to achieve a common goal.|
It allows for increased efficiency, better communication, and improved collaboration among team members. Each participant is important in reaching the desired outcome in collaborative workflows.
This could involve sharing information, assigning tasks, creating reports, or performing other activities.
|Change management||Change management is a process that entails planning, implementing and monitoring organizational changes. |
It can be applied to both small-scale projects with short-term goals and larger initiatives with longer timelines.
In either case, change management involves creating structured processes to help organizations adopt new ways of doing things and ensure successful outcomes.
|Commercial banks||Commercial banks are financial institutions that provide services such as accepting deposits, issuing loans, providing payment services, and acting as intermediaries in financial markets.|
They offer their customers various services, including savings accounts, current accounts, mortgages, and credit cards. Commercial banks also manage money transfers between parties and act as client-fund custodians.
|Commodity||A commodity is a basic good used in commerce that is interchangeable. Commodities are often used as inputs in producing other goods or services.|
The quality of a given commodity may differ slightly, but it is essentially uniform across producers. Examples of commodities include grains, gold, beef, oil, and natural gas.
|Competitive analysis||Competitive analysis is an important part of any business plan. It helps identify market opportunities and threats and competitors’ strengths and weaknesses.|
The process involves researching and analyzing competitors to gain insights into their market strategies and objectives.
Analyzing competitors can also provide useful information on new products or services that may be developed.
|Copyright||Copyright is a form of legal protection for original works of authorship. It gives the creator exclusive rights to reproduce, distribute and publicly perform or display their work.|
This means that anyone wishing to use the work in any way must first obtain permission from the creator or face potential legal action.
Copyright can be applied to anything from books, music, and software to sculptures and photographs.
|Core competency||A core competency is an area of expertise a business can use to differentiate itself from its competitors.|
Combining specific, specialized knowledge and skills gives a company the edge over its rivals in terms of products, services, innovations, and other capabilities.
|Corporation||A corporation is a legal entity created through its state of incorporation laws. Corporations can take on different forms, such as LLCs or S-corporations.|
Generally, a corporation has all the rights and liabilities of an individual. It allows business owners to limit their liability for business debts and claims, provide continuity and centralized management and raise capital more easily.
|Cultural Intelligence||Cultural Intelligence (CQ) is a powerful tool for navigating our increasingly globalized and interconnected world. |
It enables individuals to better understand the cultural dynamics at play in their work, social and educational environments, enabling them to communicate more effectively and engage more productively with people from other cultures.
|Data catalog||A Data Catalog is a database of metadata that helps organizations store, organize, and retrieve data. It is an important tool for efficiently managing large amounts of information and making finding the exact data needed easier.|
The catalog also provides data governance by providing security controls to ensure that only authorized users can access sensitive or confidential information.
|Data lineage||Data Lineage tracks the data flow from its source to its end destination. This type of analysis helps organizations understand how their data is being used, where it comes from, and what changes have been made over time.|
It provides visibility into the data’s history and can provide valuable insights for organizations to monitor and manage data quality.
|Decision maker||The Decision Maker plays an important role in any organization. |
This person has the ultimate authority to decide what direction a business or project will take and how resources should be allocated.
This individual is also responsible for creating strategies aligned with organizational goals, managing risk, and setting policies and procedures.
|Depreciation||Depreciation is an important concept for businesses to understand. It refers to the decrease in value of a business asset over time, usually due to its wear and tear or obsolescence.|
Depreciation allows a company to recognize the decline in value of an asset on its balance sheet, allowing them to account for it by charging it as an expense on its income statement.
|Direct marketing||Direct marketing is an effective tool to reach both current and potential customers. |
It allows businesses to target their message to a highly specific audience, creating a more personalized experience for the customer.
Furthermore, direct marketing helps improve customer loyalty and can increase sales by allowing businesses to offer incentives such as discounts and freebies.
|Domestic market||The domestic market is a key marketplace for many businesses. It allows them to interact directly with their customers and build relationships that lead to more sales.|
This type of direct contact also allows companies to gain valuable insights into consumer preferences and trends, allowing them to tailor their products and services accordingly.
|Digital workspace||Digital workspace is the term used to refer to any environment that allows users to interact with digital applications and data through a network, typically via the internet. |
Digital workspaces can range from simple web-based programs like Google Docs or Microsoft Office Online, to more complex cloud-based platforms like Salesforce or Office 365.
|Dynamic asset allocation||Dynamic Asset Allocation (DAA) is an asset allocation that automatically adjusts its portfolio to changing market conditions.|
This strategy uses systematic, rules-based investment models to determine the optimal mix of investments to achieve the best possible returns while minimizing risk.
|Earnings||Earnings are among the most important metrics for investors and business professionals. Earnings can measure a company’s success or failure.|
They reflect how well the company is generating revenue and profit and its ability to manage expenses.
Earnings are typically reported quarterly or annually and can be found in a company’s financial statements.
|Employee engagement||Employee engagement is a key factor in any organization’s success. |
When employees are engaged, they are more invested in the company’s mission and goals, leading to increased productivity and profitability.
Engaged employees also help create a positive workplace culture which can lead to improved employee satisfaction, lower turnover rates, and higher morale.
|E-commerce||E-commerce transforms people’s shopping, making finding and purchasing products online easier.|
It has revolutionized how businesses conduct their operations, allowing them to reach new markets, lower costs, and increase sales.
For customers, e-commerce offers convenience and a wide selection of goods at competitive prices.
|Enterprise||Enterprise is a term used to describe the activities of businesses and organizations that aim to earn profits by supplying goods and services.|
It includes all the activities related to running a business, such as production, marketing, sales, research and development, finance, accounting, and human resources.
|Entrepreneur||An entrepreneur is a person who identifies an opportunity and takes the initiative to turn it into a business venture. |
Entrepreneurs have the passion and drive to identify problems, develop solutions, take risks, and create something from nothing.
They are driven by their enthusiasm for innovation and strive to build businesses that can improve people’s lives.
|Entrepreneurship||Entrepreneurship is about being creative, taking risks, and finding innovative solutions to problems. Being an entrepreneur requires hard work, dedication, and commitment.|
It also involves understanding the needs of your customers and developing products or services that can meet those needs.
|Equilibrium market||An equilibrium market is a state of balance between buyers and sellers where the price for goods remains stable.|
This stability occurs when the number of buyers and sellers is nearly equal, creating an environment where neither side has an advantage.
In such a situation, buyers and sellers operate on an even playing field, and transactions occur at fair market prices.
|Employee satisfaction survey||An employee satisfaction survey is an important tool used by companies to measure the level of engagement and job satisfaction among their employees. |
It can help identify areas where improvements need to be made in order to ensure staff morale remains high.
By asking meaningful questions, it can provide insight into how well employees understand their roles and responsibilities, how they perceive their work environment, and how satisfied they are with their salary and benefits.
|Employee experience||Employee experience is an important element to consider when running a successful business. |
It affects how employees view the organization, their job satisfaction, and ultimately their productivity.
Creating a positive employee experience can lead to greater employee engagement and loyalty towards the company.
|Equity||Equity is the principle of fairness. Everyone should be treated equally, regardless of social or economic status, identity, or other differences.|
This concept has been included in laws and policies for centuries and promotes societal fairness and justice. Equity helps ensure everyone has access to the same resources and opportunities and can be held accountable for their actions.
|Feedback||Feedback is a process that helps to improve products, services, or processes by gaining and acting on the opinions of others. |
It involves listening to customers, colleagues, or other stakeholders and using their insights to make improvements.
|Financial analysts||Financial analysts are experts in the field of finance, providing investors and businesses with important insight into their financial decisions.|
They use various tools and techniques to study the performance of stocks, bonds, mutual funds, and other investments.
Financial analysis involves gathering and interpreting data on companies or industries to make investment recommendations or advise on potential mergers and acquisitions.
|Forecast||Forecasts are used to make predictions about future events or trends. They can be based on various sources, including historical data, mathematical models, and expert opinions. |
Generally, forecasts determine the most likely outcome for a given situation or event.
|Foreign market||Foreign markets offer vast opportunities for businesses to grow and expand by tapping into a new customer base.|
By entering foreign markets, companies can diversify their operations, increase profits, and access more resources to help them become more competitive in the global marketplace.
|Flexible working||Flexible working is the practice of organizing and managing work in a way that allows employees to have more control over their working hours and environment. |
It enables staff to choose when they work, where they work, how long they work and in some cases who they work with.
This can range from choosing the days that you go into the office, flexible start/finish times, or even working from home on a permanent or temporary basis.
|Franchising||Franchising uses another business’s successful business model and brand to distribute products or services across a larger geographic area. |
Franchises can be found in almost all sectors, including food, retail, hospitality, education, automotive, and more.
They are typically structured as agreements between the franchisor (the company that grants the license) and the franchisee (the businessperson who pays to use the franchisor’s name and model).
|Goodwill||Goodwill means having a kind and generous disposition, usually considered an expression of goodwill. Goodwill often involves extending favors or showing kindness to another person without expecting anything in return. |
It can also refer to the ability of one person or organization to inspire trust and confidence in others.
|Gross domestic product (GDP)||Gross domestic product (GDP) is an important indicator of the health and prosperity of a country’s economy. |
It measures the total value of all goods and services produced within a given period, typically a year.
GDP is often used to measure different economies’ relative size and compare their performance over time.
|Guarantor||A guarantor serves as a backup or security measure, ensuring that if the primary party fails to meet their obligations, the guarantor will step in and fulfill them.|
|Hard good||A hard good is a physical product that needs to be manufactured, stored, and transported. It can include electronics, furniture, toys, and clothing. |
Hard goods are usually made from durable materials like wood or metal, which lasts longer than soft goods like food or clothing.
|Hedging||Hedging is a strategy in investing and risk management that helps to reduce the negative impacts of market volatility on investments. |
It involves taking long and short positions in various financial instruments to offset each other’s risks.
Hedging can be used for various purposes, including portfolio diversification, income protection, tax optimization, and currency hedging.
|Huddle rooms||Huddle rooms provide a space for small teams to connect and work together without the distraction of other colleagues or shared office spaces. |
They offer privacy and comfort while still keeping everyone connected.
With their flexible, intuitive design and easy to use technology, they are transforming how teams collaborate in today’s modern office.
|Human Resource HR||Human Resources (HR) is key to any organization’s success. |
HR professionals are responsible for managing the activities associated with recruiting, hiring, training, and retaining employees.
They must ensure that all employee-related functions are aligned with the company’s goals and objectives to maximize productivity and minimize conflicts.
|Hybrid team||A hybrid team is a combination of both remote and onsite workers. |
It allows the company to leverage talent from all over the world while still having some employees work in-house.
This type of team can be beneficial for businesses that need to scale quickly, as it provides access to a larger pool of resources, flexibility, and cost savings.
|Income Statement||The income statement is one of the businesses’ most important financial statements to track their performance and progress. |
It provides a snapshot of a company’s revenue streams, operating costs, and profitability over a certain period.
The information in an income statement can be used to assess how well the company is performing and identify areas for improvement.
|Incubator||An incubator is a platform for startups to launch and grow their business. |
It provides a wide range of resources, including mentorship, access to capital, office space, and more, to help entrepreneurs get their businesses off the ground.
Incubators can also provide connections to key players in the industry, which can be invaluable for gaining market insight and launching successful products or services.
|Industrial relations||Industrial relations is the complex mix of interactions between employees, employers, and the government.|
It covers various topics, including wages, work hours, workplace health and safety, dispute resolution procedures, union representation and rights, diversity initiatives, and more.
|Innovation||Innovation is taking a concept or idea and making it into reality. It involves creativity, experimentation, risk-taking, and problem-solving to create something new. |
Innovation has become increasingly important in today’s fast-paced world as businesses strive to stay ahead of the competition.
|Institutionalization||Institutionalization places individuals in an institution such as a mental hospital, nursing home, or correctional facility. |
Institutionalization can also occur when an individual is placed in a boarding school or orphanage. It aims to provide care and support for those who cannot care for themselves.
|Inclusion||Inclusion is the practice of involving people in activities and environments that were previously not accessible to them. |
It works to ensure that all individuals, regardless of their differences, are valued and respected in their communities.
This includes providing access to education, employment opportunities, recreation, housing, and healthcare.
|Interactive maps||Interactive maps are digital tools that allow users to explore a geographic area and the data associated with it. |
These maps range from simple navigational tools used to help users find their way around a city, to complex systems used for making decisions about land management or natural resource use.
They are becoming increasingly popular as people realize the power of having access to a visual representation of data.
|Intersectionality||Intersectionality is an analytical framework that recognizes the overlapping identities and experiences of marginalization people can experience due to a combination of their race, gender, sexual orientation, class, religion, ability status and other factors. |
It acknowledges that individuals do not exist in isolation and that they are shaped by multiple structures of oppression such as racism, sexism, homophobia, and ableism.
|Implicit bias||Implicit bias is the tendency to make assumptions and judgments about people based on their social group. |
It can manifest in a variety of ways, including racial stereotypes, gender bias, or religious prejudice.
Implicit bias can also occur when we make decisions without considering all the facts and evidence available.
|International marketing||International marketing is a form of business that involves the marketing and selling goods and services across different countries, cultures, and markets. |
This type of marketing requires an understanding of both global and local market trends to ensure success.
Companies must be aware of international regulations, cultural nuances, and other variables to create effective campaigns that reach customers in different countries.
|Intrinsic Valuation||Intrinsic valuation is a method used to evaluate the expected return of an asset. |
It assesses the intrinsic value of securities by analyzing their underlying fundamentals, such as cash flow, earnings growth, dividend yield, and other factors.
The intrinsic valuation assumes that all available information about a security, including its financial statements, market price, and other factors, is accurately reflected in its current market value.
|Inventory||Inventory is the total stock of goods or items kept on hand by a business. This can include raw materials, components, and finished products held in storage before being sold. |
Managing inventory requires careful planning to ensure the right supply and demand levels.
|Integrated Workplace Management Software (IWMS)||Integrated Workplace Management Software (IWMS) is a comprehensive software platform designed to help organizations manage their physical assets and resources. |
IWMS provides businesses with the tools they need to streamline operations, improve efficiency, reduce costs, and maximize organizational performance.
This software offers a variety of features that are customized for different industries including corporate real estate, facilities management, workplace services, and more.
|Investment||Investment is committing money or capital to an endeavor to obtain an additional income or profit. |
It generally involves making a substantial commitment of funds initially and expecting some future return. Investment strategies can vary widely, depending on the investor’s goals, resources, and level of risk appetite.
|IPO||An Initial Public Offering (IPO) is when a privately held company becomes publicly traded on an exchange. |
It involves issuing shares of stock to investors and allowing them to buy into the company. This is typically done through a securities offering, which can either be handled directly by the issuer or with the assistance of an investment bank.
Once the IPO is complete, the company’s shares are traded on an exchange and can be bought and sold by investors.
|Leverage||Leverage is a powerful tool for businesses and individuals alike. |
It allows people to increase their returns on investments by borrowing money or using other assets to finance the purchase of an investment.
This can be a great way to maximize profits since it reduces the amount of capital needed up-front and can enable investors to increase their returns significantly depending on the type of leverage used.
|Liability||Liability is an obligation of one or more parties to another party. It may be in the form of a legal responsibility or financial debt. |
Legal liability typically involves some form of breach of contract, negligence, or intentional harm done to another party.
Financial liabilities are obligations to pay for goods or services an individual or entity purchases.
|Market penetration pricing strategy||Market penetration pricing strategy is a pricing method companies use to increase sales and market share of their product. |
It involves setting low prices to attract new customers and capture a larger portion of the market.
By pricing products at lower levels than competitors, businesses can gain access to more consumers and attract them away from other brands.
This strategy helps businesses maximize their profits by creating an environment to increase sales volume and make more money from each sale.
|Market segmentation||Market segmentation is a key component of any successful marketing strategy. |
It allows brands to identify their target market, create a customized message that resonates with the desired audience and maximize return on investment.
By understanding the needs, preferences, and motivations of different customer segments, businesses can tailor their marketing efforts to reach precisely the right customers most cost-effectively.
|Marketing||Marketing is the process of communicating the value of a product or service to customers to sell that product or service. |
It is a critical component in any business strategy and can help a company stand out.
Through effective marketing, businesses can reach their target audience and drive sales and brand awareness.
|Mark-to-Market||Mark-to-Market (MTM) is an accounting process used to periodically adjust the value of financial instruments to current market conditions. |
It is a system that allows companies and investors to measure their gains and losses on investments more accurately by valuing them at their current market value rather than their original cost or book value.
|Microaggressions||Microaggressions are subtle forms of discrimination that occur when people make assumptions, insensitive remarks or act in a certain manner towards someone based on their race, gender, sexual orientation, disability status or other social identity. |
These incidents may seem small and insignificant but they have the power to cause harm and create an environment of exclusion.
|Micromanagement||Micromanagement is a style of management characterized by close supervision, control, and attention to details. |
It is defined as “a managerial approach that involves actively controlling and monitoring the work of subordinates.”
Micromanagers tend to be overly involved in their employees’ work activities and may make decisions or give instructions without considering the employee’s opinion.
|Objective||An objective is a goal or targets an individual or organization sets. It is usually actionable and measurable, so that progress toward completion can be tracked. |
An objective should be specific and tailored to the individual or organization’s needs.
|Outsourcing||Outsourcing is a great way to free up resources and reduce business costs. |
It can help companies to focus on their core strengths while outsourcing those activities that require specialized skills or expertise.
Businesses can take advantage of cost-effective and timely solutions by tapping into outside sources for services such as IT, customer service, manufacturing, and logistics.
Additionally, outsourcing can help reduce overhead costs and boost productivity.
|Partnership||Partnerships are an effective way to achieve mutual goals. It is the coming together of two or more organizations, individuals, or groups to achieve a common objective.|
Partnerships help to create synergy, with each partner contributing their ideas and knowledge to achieve a common goal.
This can help to share the cost, risk, and rewards of any project, which makes it more attractive to all partners involved.
|Passive portfolio strategy||A passive portfolio strategy is an investment approach that involves minimal ongoing buying and selling of assets. |
Instead, investors create a diversified portfolio based on their personal goals and preferences, typically matching the composition of some broad market index such as the S&P 500 or Wilshire 5000.
This approach may require periodic rebalancing to ensure the asset mix remains consistent with the desired allocations.
|Performance evaluation||Performance evaluations are an important tool for employers to assess their employees’ progress. |
It helps them understand how well or poorly employees have been performing in their roles and provides insights into improvement areas.
A performance evaluation is a formal assessment, typically conducted regularly, where managers assess an employee’s job performance against certain criteria.
|Portfolio||A portfolio is a collection of documents or other items demonstrating a person’s experience, qualifications, and skills. |
It can showcase an individual’s talents and accomplishments professionally or academically.
By displaying work samples and achievements, an individual can demonstrate their value to potential employers or educational institutions.
|Price of Risk||The Price Of Risk is a concept used in financial analysis to assess the level of risk associated with any investment or financial decision.|
It is calculated by dividing the expected return from an asset or activity by its standard deviation of returns, which is a measure of its volatility.
The Price Of Risk can be used to compare two different investments with different levels of risk and different expected returns or to decide whether or not a certain investment is worth taking.
|Price point||The price point is the maximum price a customer will pay for a product or service. The tipping point determines whether a purchase will be made or not. |
Knowing your target audience’s price points is essential to set attractive and competitive prices to make sales.
It also helps companies determine pricing strategies concerning discounts, promotions, bundling, etc.
|Public Relations||Public relations strategically manages communication between an individual or organization and its public. |
This involves creating and maintaining a positive brand image to encourage strong relationships with customers, stakeholders, employees, partners, suppliers, and other audiences essential for success.
It also includes developing strategies to help promote products, services, or causes and create meaningful connections with target audiences.
|Random sampling||Random sampling is a statistical technique that involves selecting a subset of individuals from a larger population to conclude the entire group. |
It’s important because it allows researchers to study large populations without collecting data from everyone.
Random sampling ensures that everyone in the population has an equal chance of being included in the sample, so bias is minimized.
|Recruitment||Recruitment is the process of finding and hiring qualified candidates for a role within an organization. |
It involves searching for, screening, and assessing potential employees—a process that can require significant time and resources if not done properly.
To ensure successful recruitment, it’s important to clearly understand the job description, identify the competencies needed, and create a plan of action.
|Remote work||Remote work means employees are free to work from home or any other remote location. |
This type of work has become increasingly popular in recent years, due to its many benefits.
Remote workers enjoy more flexibility with their schedules and can save money on commuting costs.
Additionally, remote work allows employees to take advantage of opportunities that would otherwise be unavailable due to geographic constraints.
|Retained Earnings||Retained Earnings are a key component of the financial health of any business. |
Money remains in the company after all expenses, dividends, and taxes have been paid out. This money represents the accumulated profits of a business over time.
Retained earnings are important because they provide businesses with resources to invest in growth initiatives such as research and development, equipment, and expansion.
|Salary||A salary is a form of payment or compensation given to an employee by their employer. |
The amount of salary given will typically depend on the individual’s job role, experience, and qualifications.
It is important to note that salary excludes extra benefits such as overtime pay, bonuses, vacation time, or health insurance.
|Sales||Sale is a key part of any business. It’s the process of identifying customers, understanding their needs, and providing them with products or services that fulfill them. |
A company’s success largely depends on its ability to effectively carry out the sales process.
|Sales agreement||A sales agreement is a contract between the buyer and the seller. It outlines the sale details and includes payment terms, delivery methods, warranties, and other important provisions. |
Both parties should sign a sales agreement before any exchange of money or goods takes place.
This document protects both the buyer and seller in case of any dispute or misunderstanding that may arise during the duration of the agreement.
|Sales channel||A sales channel is a method through which products and services are sold to customers. It can involve physical retailers, direct selling, online stores, or multi-level marketing. |
Companies may use one or multiple sales channels to reach different types of customers and markets. Different channels will offer varying levels of customer service and convenience and different pricing structures.
|Scalable||Scalability is a fundamental requirement for any system that needs to grow in capacity or capability over time. |
A system or service can handle increased workloads without impacting performance, reliability, and usability.
To be truly scalable, systems must be designed with an architecture that can easily scale up or down when needed.
|Search Engine||Search engines are an important tool for people searching online for their needs. |
They use algorithms that allow them to quickly sift through many web pages and bring the most relevant ones to the top of the list.
These algorithms consider keywords, links, and other information about a website to determine how relevant it is to a user’s search.
People can quickly and easily find the information they need by using search engines without wasting time scrolling through pages of irrelevant results.
|Securities||Securities are tradable financial assets representing the ownership of a company, debt obligation, or rights to receive or pay dividends.|
They include stocks and bonds issued by corporations, government entities, and other financial institutions and derivatives such as options and futures contracts.
|Skill set||Skill sets combine skills, knowledge, and abilities needed to perform tasks. |
It includes technical and interpersonal capabilities and cognitive abilities such as problem-solving, decision-making, and critical thinking.
A skill set can be divided into two categories: hard skills and soft skills. Hard skills are the abilities related to specific jobs or tasks that are usually learned through
|Sole Proprietorship||A sole proprietorship is a business structure that owns and operates the entire enterprise. |
This individual, the sole proprietor, is legally responsible for all aspects of the business, including liabilities, debts, and assets.
Operating under a sole proprietorship makes starting and managing your company easier because there are fewer legal complexities and financial requirements than in other business structures.
|Stakeholders||Stakeholders are an integral part of any project. They are the individuals or groups with a vested interest in the success or failure of a project and can be either internal to the organization or external.|
Internal stakeholders include employees, management, shareholders, and board members, while external stakeholders can include customers, suppliers, government agencies, trade unions, and the local community.
|Strategy||Strategy is a plan of action to achieve a long-term or overall aim. It defines an organization’s approach, direction, and decisions to achieve its goals.|
The strategy involves setting objectives, analyzing resources and capabilities, improving operations, and creating competitive advantages.
|Start-up||A Startup is a business venture that is usually built from scratch. |
It typically involves one or more founders who have an idea they believe can be turned into a profitable venture and are willing to take on the risk of doing so.
Start-ups often require seed money, which may come from friends and family, angel investors, or venture capital firms.
|Stock||Stocks, or shares of ownership in a company, are common investments for many investors. When you purchase stocks, you become part owner of the company and are entitled to a share of its profits. Stock prices fluctuate based on supply and demand, so it is important to understand how stock markets operate before investing.|
|Stock exchanges||Stock exchanges are financial marketplaces where stocks, bonds, and other securities are traded. They serve as the primary source of capital for companies looking to grow their business. |
Companies publicly listed on a stock exchange typically have more access to investors than privately-held firms.
Stock exchanges also create market liquidity by providing transparency and information about securities trading.
|SWOT analysis||A SWOT analysis is a strategic planning tool to help organizations identify their strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. |
Analyzing an organization’s internal and external environment helps create strategies that will ensure success.
Strengths refer to the internal characteristics of an organization or team, while weaknesses are its limitations or areas that need improvement.
Opportunities refer to external factors the organization can take advantage of, while threats are outside forces that could negatively affect its performance.
|Status board||A status board is a tool used to track the progress of ongoing projects. |
It provides visual feedback on project milestones, goals, and tasks in order to help teams stay organized and motivated.
The information displayed on a status board can be used to identify areas where further action or resources are needed, as well as areas that have been successfully completed.
|Sensors||Sensors are a central element of modern technology, capable of detecting and responding to various inputs. They come in many different shapes and sizes, depending on their purpose. For example, automotive sensors measure temperature and pressure to maintain engine performance while home security systems use motion detectors to detect intruders.|
|Target market||A target market can refer to specific groups of consumers identified as likely customers for a product. These groups could include age, gender, income level, family size, occupation, and geography. By understanding who your target market is, you will be able to customize the features of your product or service to meet the needs of that particular group. This can lead to added value for both you and the customer as it increases their satisfaction with your product or service.|
|Taxation||Taxes are an important source of revenue for governments and can be used to fund public services, such as healthcare and education.|
Taxation involves levying taxes on individuals or organizations based on income, profits, or spending.
Tax rates can vary significantly between different countries and regions. It depends on the type of taxation system in place.
|Technical analysts||Technical analysts study the effects of market forces such as news, financial data, and technical indicators to predict future market trends. |
They use various tools, including charting and analysis software, to identify patterns in the underlying price movements of stocks, ETFs, indices, commodities, and currencies.
By monitoring these patterns over time, technical analysts can identify opportunities for potential profits.
|Telemarketing||Telemarketing is a widely used marketing and sales communication method, typically conducted over the phone. |
It involves calling potential customers to discuss products or services that interest them.
Telemarketing can be an effective way for businesses to reach out and build relationships with their target audience, helping to create brand awareness and drive sales.
|Thinking outside the box||Thinking outside the box is a phrase that has become popular in recent years and encourages people to think differently. |
It encourages creativity, innovation, and problem-solving by allowing new perspectives on old problems or situations.
Thinking outside the box allows for exploring alternate solutions and ideas that may not have been considered.
|Touch base||Touch base is a phrase used to describe the act of making contact with someone to briefly check in, assess the situation, and make sure everything is progressing as intended. |
It’s typically used in professional or business contexts but can also apply to other settings.
Touching base is an important part of any collaboration or project management process because it facilitates communication and helps meet goals and objectives.
|USP||A Unique Selling Point (USP) is the element that sets your business apart from its competitors, giving you an edge in terms of attracting and retaining customers.|
A USP is an essential part of a business’s marketing strategy. It differentiates a product or service from its competitors and makes it stand out in the marketplace. A USP should be unique, relevant, and communicated.
|Vertical||Vertical in business typically refers to products, services, or solutions designed to serve a specific industry. |
This type of vertical focuses on streamlining processes, increasing efficiency, and providing better customer service within the chosen industry.
Examples of industries that have seen an increase in verticalization include retail, health care, hospitality, manufacturing, and financial services.
|Wages||Wages are the compensation paid to employees for their services. |
They are usually expressed in hourly, daily, or monthly amounts and can be based on factors such as job type, experience, location, etc.
Wages are typically the largest component of most people’s income and play an important role in the quality of life.
|Web marketing||Web marketing effectively allows businesses to reach their target audience and increase sales. |
It involves utilizing various online platforms, such as search engines, social media, and email, to drive traffic to a website or landing page.
By optimizing each platform with content relevant to the target market, businesses can maximize their return on investment by reaching more potential customers.
|Work from home||Work from home means working from a location other than the traditional office or workplace. |
It can be done remotely, either in your own home, a family member’s home, a public library, a cafe or anywhere with an internet connection.
For many people, it is more cost-effective and convenient to work from home since they don’t need to commute every day to their workplace.
|Workplace experience||Workplace experience plays an important role in helping individuals to develop their professional skills and knowledge. |
It provides an opportunity to gain insight into the operations of organizations, as well as build networks of contacts that can be invaluable in furthering career advancement.
Through workplace experience, individuals are able to gain practical skills and apply them directly on the job.
|Wholesaler||A wholesaler is a company that buys products in large quantities directly from the manufacturer and resells them to retailers or other businesses.|
They play an important role in supplying goods to the marketplace, providing retailers access to a wide range of products at competitive prices.
Wholesalers typically offer bulk discounts for larger purchases, which can help retailers save money.